Achromatic - Black, white and
greys. Artwork that is executed without color.
Acrylic - Thicker and stronger than tempera or watercolor
paint, Acrylic is a water-based "plastic" paint.
Albumen Print - This printing process is used in photography
printing processes. Egg whites are used in the emulsion.
Alternative Process - This photography term covers approximately 35
different processes for the final unconventional effect.
Art Boards - Art
boards are smooth, reflective surface refracts light differently than canvas; making
colors more brilliant and vibrant. The firm, consistent surface is perfect for smooth
blending of colors, fine brushwork and minute detail. The choice of painting surfaces can
have a profound effect on the success of artwork, creating as much impact as paint or
technique. Most cracked paint seen in completed paintings results from some type of
movement in the support. Art board panels protect artwork from damage, which is caused by
the flexing and cracking of paint films. And the solid structure prevents the surface from
being accidentally dented, torn or damaged by mishandling. Wood panels are more permanent
than flexible fabric. Properly prepared art boards will have a longer life than stretched
canvas or other thin flexible supports. Witherspoon originals are made to securely mount
flush to the wall. The panels easily hang on a single nail or screw - no need for frames
or picture wire. The rigid surface of an art boards ideal for all painting mediums,
including collage, mounting prints and works on paper.
Artists Proof - A small group of outstanding prints for the artists use which
have been set aside from the edition prints.
Artist Proofs began in the days of offset lithography, when the first group of
prints off the press were the sharpest and therefore the most desirable. These
proofs were often given to the artist as payment for signing the lithographs and
became a rare subset of each print run, available only to the artist and
Artist Proofs are valuable for a number of reasons. Firstly, their rarity as a
subset of a given edition immediately increases their value. Their place as part
of an artist or publisher's private collection also increases their
desirability. Additionally, because they are sold separately from the bulk of an
edition, they may be available even when an edition is technically sold out.
Finally, when an edition is sold out and secondary-market value is realized,
Artist Proof market value could rise at a much greater rate than the rest of the
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art and design principle concerned with the arrangement
of one or more elements in a work of art so that they appear symmetrical (even) or
asymmetrical (uneven) in design and proportion.
Basic color principles -
All color theory is based on the principle that
'color is light'.
An object that we see as red contains pigmentation which absorbs all of the colored rays
of white light except the red color, which it reflects. White pigment absorbs none of the
colored rays, and black absorbs all of the colors of the spectrum.
complete absence of light. Because of impurities, you can not create black with pigments.
In most black pigments, the is a slight blue trace. A black surface absorbs all light.
Brayer - In
printmaking, a Brayer is a roller which is used to apply ink to printing surfaces.
Brushes - Brush
styles are designated by a letter following a series number. Some basic brushes to meet
§ F- Flats, square edge, long bristle
§ B- Brights, flat, square-edged, long sable
§ R - Rounds, pointed bristle
§ L- Longs, flat, square-edge, long sable
§ Filberts- Flat, oval edge, long fibre
Fabrics that are prepared for painting.
Available in panels, stretched on frames, or obtained by the yard.
impression made by the artist, or by the printer seal.
the intensity, or strength, or purity of a color. Squeezing paint directly from the tube
to the palette is 'full chroma'.
process where a photographic print can be made directly from a color transparency.
is from the French meaning "paste up". The combination of pieces of cloth,
magazines and other found objects to create artwork.
name is derived from the word 'collage'. It is an image built up with glue and other
light is reflected off an object, color is what the eye sees. The primary colors are red,
yellow and blue. The secondary colors are orange, purple and green.
Color Wheel - The Color Wheel describes the relationships between colors.
It is laid out so that any two Primary Colors (red, yellow, blue) are separated by
the Secondary Colors (orange, violet, and green)
are basic and cannot be mixed from other elements. They are
to color what prime numbers are to mathematics. One can mix two primaries to get a
Secondary Color. You will notice that each Secondary Color on the Color Wheel is bounded
by two primaries. These are the components that one would mix to get that Secondary Color.
- Complementary colors are those which appear opposite to one another on a color
wheel. The complimentary colors are red and green, blue and orange, and yellow and
purple. These colors contrast
each other in the most extreme way possible. They also help to make each other more
active. In the Color Wheel illustration above, the complement of the color is used as text
in that section. This is to illustrate the opposite character of the color.
The ratios and illustrations on the right of
the chalkboard are ideal amounts of color compliments according to Johannes Itten. He
believed that equal amounts of red and green are appropriate (1:1 ratio). Blue and orange
are different in value, so they their ratios need adjustment (5 blue:3 orange ratio). The
same is true of violet and yellow (6 violet:1 yellow). These ratios were probably devised
to counter the intensity of colors like yellow and orange.
§ Hint: All colors travel in waves within
light. Color Complements have drastically different wavelengths and, consequently, cause
some perception problems for a viewer if they are placed close to each other in a work of
art. The cones and rods of the eye cannot handle so much information, so we sometimes
detect a quivering or optical distortion when two complements are used near each other.
arrangement of lines, colors and form.
modern pencil lead invented by Nicolas Conte. It is a black, red or brown chalk.
Contour Drawing -
drawing shows the outline of the subject, and not the volume or mass of an object. Blind
contour drawings are those created by looking only at the subject, and not the paper while
is created by using opposites near or beside one another, such as a light object next to a
dark object or a rough texture next to a smooth texture.
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painting technique involves the use of powdered colors that are mixed with glue size, or
such things as egg yolk.
is an object or color that stands out in relation to the rest of the painting.
Dry Brushing -
used in paintings using more pigment then water.
Dye Transfer -
is one of the most permanent color processes. This method gives maximum control of color,
balance and contrast for color prints or transparencies.
is used to support your canvas while painting. Can be a collapsible tripod, studio types
and as a combination sketch box unit. Some sketch boxes contain lids that serve as easels.
group of identical prints that can be numbered and signed by the artist.
§ Open Edition: An unlimited number of prints
§ Limited Edition: Prints that have a known number of impressions, and
are usually signed and numbered by the
Egg Tempra -
water-base paint made with an egg yoke binder.
Elements of Art -
Elements of art are the basic visual symbols found in the work such as lines,
shape, form, space, point, light, motion, direction, scale, dimension, texture and color.
ancient art uses colored wax for painting. This technique involves painting images onto
walls with pigments that are blended with wax. When used with heat, such as an iron, the
permanent color is burned into the wall, for good.
Fixative Spray -
fixing charcoal drawing on canvas before painting. Fixative spray is available in spray
cans, or for use with mouth atomizer.
element of art, such as you would see in a sculpture that has three dimensions.
is applied directly to damp plaster making this wall painting medium one of the most
permanent form of wall decoration.
priming ground to be used on a variety of absorbent surfaces where acrylic colors,
polymers, oil colors, tempera or casein will be applied. Dries within minutes to be
brilliant white and not yellow. Can be tinted with acrylic colors before application for
Gesture Drawing -
quick drawing captures the energy and movement of the subject. It does not necessarily
have to be realistic.
that is thinned to a transparent state and applied over previously painted areas to modify
the original color. (see also Underpainting)
Gold Leaf - Used
for gilding, gold or silver (for silver leafing) is beaten to extremely thin sheets.
Gouache (Tempera) - Opaque watercolors and the technique of painting with such colors using white to
Canvas Giclée Prints -
description, terminologies, process
still receives direct light
but at an oblique angle, and therefore less intense
Faces ;directly towards the
light source (A good artist usually will have one principal highlight and the other light
areas less intense.
another word for color. The attribute which describes colors by name, i.e. red, blue,
A manner of painting where the paint is
laid on thickly so texture stands out in relief.
is referred to as the most important art movement of the 19th century. The term
impressionism came from a painting by Claude Monet. His painting was titled titled
Impression Sunrise. Impressionism is about capturing fast fleeting moments with color,
light, and surface.
term is used to describe the brightness, or the dullness of a color.
Intermediate colors - Obtained by mixing adjoining Primary and Secondary colors.
A line is an identifiable path of a
point moving in space. It can vary in width, direction and length.
§ Horizontal lines run parallel such as === - They serve to express
§ Vertical lines run up and down such as ||||| - They serve to slow the
eye down and create visual interest when spread apart in an uneven manner.
§ Diagonal lines are slanting lines such as \\\\\ - They serve to express action.
§ Angled lines are a combination of diagonal lines such as /\/\/\/\/
><<> They serve to express instability.
§ Curved lines are curly and express movement such as ~~~~~
Linseed Oil -
as a medium. The traditional "binder" for oil colors.
is a printing process. A small stone, or metal plate is used. The printer, usually with
the artists supervision covers the plate with a sheet of paper which are then run through
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The art material that is used in a work
of art such as clay, paint or pencil. Describing more then one art medium is referred to
as media. Any substance added to color to facilitate application or to achieve a desired
Modeling Material - Material that is formed into a shape. Most modeling materials harden when the
moisture in them evaporates, such as clay or modeling paste for oil and acrylic painters.
Some do not harden, such as plastecine and can be used again.
print that has the same underlying common image, but different design, color or texture.
of a kind print made by painting on smooth metal, creating a texture that is not possible
to paint directly on paper.
paper comes in large sheets, and is inexpensive. Newsprint will eventually yellow, and is
not a good choice for preserving artwork. Pen and market will bleed through newsprint.
Oil Cup -
A container that can be clipped to your
oil palette. One cup for the medium, the other cup for the brush cleaner.
Oil Paint -
definition by Winsor & Newton state: "Oils are one of the great classic media,
and have dominated painting for five hundred years. They remain popular for many reasons:
their great versatility, offering the possibility of transparency and opacity in the same
painting; the lack of color change when the painting dries; and ease of
Organic - Shapes
that are not regular or even, using a combination of edges that are curved or angular.
Canvas Giclée Prints -
description, terminologies, process
Repetition is created when objects,
shapes, space, light, direction, lines etc. are repeated in artwork. They serve to
unify a composition.
Rhythm - When
the regular repetition of particular forms or elements occurs in a work of art, that work
is said to have rhythm. It suggests motion.
Secondary colors -
Orange, Violet, Green. Each
color is midway between the Primaries from which it can be mixed.
Shadow edge -
appears cut off from both the direct
light and reflected light, and is therefore usually dark and dense
Shade - Using
a mixture of black mixed with a color to make it darker. The opposite of shade is tint.
Silver print - This
generic term covers all prints made on paper that is coated with silver salts. Black and
white photographs are usually silver prints.
Shape - Shapes
can be in the form of squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, and ovals.
Spectrum - The
colors that are the result of a beam of white light that is broken by a form of prism into
process in which an area is cut out of paper, or material such as cardboard to enable
paint or ink to be applied to a piece of paper, or canvas through the cutout.
symbol is a picture or image that tells a story of what it is without using words.
Symmetry - Symmetry
is when one side of something balances out the other side.
Tempera - Tempera
is a word used to describe any type of binder such as oil, water or egg that makes a
pigment workable as a paint form.
Tertiary colors - Colors that represent a mixture of secondary colors.
Texture - Texture
creates the feeling of an object.
Tint - Tint is
the opposite of shade. Tinting is combining white with a color to make it lighter.
Tone - The light
and shade of a color and the most common method of rendering three-dimensional form.
Turpentine (or Grumtine) - Used for cleaning equipment and to thin mediums.
Underpainting - Preliminary painting used as a
base for textures or for subsequent painting or glazing.
Unity - A
feeling of completeness is created by the use of elements in the artwork.
Shadows, darkness, contrasts and light
are all values in artwork.
Vintage - A
photograph printed within a few years of the negative being made.
Wash - A highly fluid application of
Watercolour - A
translucent, water-based paint that comes in cake or tube form.
Wax Crayon - These
crayons are ideal to use to loosen up your drawing style. Crayons are cost effective, and
it is difficult to create really detailed drawings.
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